Types of Skin Problems & their Solutions
Skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system and is the outer covering of the body. It has up to 7 layers of ectodermal tissue guarding internal organs, ligaments, bones and muscles. Skin plays an important role in the immunity of the body and protecting it against excessive water loss and pathogens.
Its other functions are the protection of vitamin B folates, synthesis of vitamin D, sensation, temperature regulation and insulation. The conditions that affect your skin are called skin diseases. These diseases may cause some changes in the skin, itchiness, inflammation and rashes. Some skin conditions may be due to lifestyle factors or genetics.
Certain skin disorders, like eczema and acne, vary greatly in severity and symptoms. They can be permanent or temporary and may be painful or painless; some can even be life-threatening (like skin cancer).
The specific cause of the skin disorder determines the treatment for each condition. It is a good idea to have your skin condition evaluated by a doctor if you experience any unusual or new symptoms.
What are Skin Diseases?
The large organ which protects and covers your body is your skin. It has many functions, like:
- Preventing dehydration and holding in fluid
- Helping in feeling sensations, such as pain or temperature
- Keeping out viruses and bacteria
- Stabilising the temperature of your body
- Creating (synthesising) vitamin D, in response to exposure to the sun
The conditions which inflame, irritate or clog your skin are called skin diseases. Often, skin diseases cause changes in your skin’s appearance or rashes.
What are the Types of Skin Diseases?
There are numerous types of skin disorders, which are listed here:
- It is commonly located on the upper back, chest, shoulders, neck and face.
- The breakouts on the skin are composed of nodules, painful cysts, pimples, whiteheads, blackheads and redness.
- This condition may darken the skin or leave scars if untreated.
- This condition causes a fluid-filled, painful and red blister that appears near the lips and the mouth. People with darker skin may notice less redness than people with lighter skin.
- The affected area will frequently burn before the sore is visible.
- Outbreaks may also be accompanied by flu-like, mild symptoms like swollen lymph nodes, body aches and low fever.
- These are characterised by a fluid-filled, clear and watery area on the skin.
- Blisters can appear anywhere on the body.
- This causes raised, itchy welts that happen after exposure to an allergen.
- The welts can be warm and mildly painful to the touch.
- On darker skin, hives can appear inflamed or raised and maybe a little lighter or darker than your natural skin colour. On lighter skin tones, hives normally appear red.
- They can be randomly shaped, ring-shaped, round or small.
- This condition causes a crusty, scaly or thick skin patch.
- It is usually about the size of a pencil eraser or less than 2 cm.
- It usually appears on body parts that receive a lot of sun exposure, such as the neck, scalp, face, arms and hands.
- The skin patch is normally pink in colour but can have a grey, tan or brown base. People with darker skin may have the patch in the same colour as the surrounding skin.
- This chronic skin disease goes through cycles of relapse and fading.
- There are four subtypes of rosacea having a wide variety of symptoms.
- Common symptoms include skin sensitivity, skin dryness, raised red bumps and facial flushing.
- There may be swollen and dry patches or brown discolouration of skin in people with darker skin tones.
- This causes an irritated, painful and red lump under your skin.
- It may also be accompanied by fatigue, body aches and fever.
- It can also cause oozing or skin crustiness.
- On darker skin, it may appear more violet.
- Urgent care may be required in this condition and it is considered a medical emergency.
- It causes a rash after exposure to a latex product, which may happen within minutes. It may appear lighter or darker than surrounding tissue and may be less visible on darker skin.
- They may also develop itchy, warm welts at the site of contact, and a crusted, dry appearance with repeated contact with latex.
- Airborne latex particles may cause watery, itchy eyes and sneezing, runny nose and cough.
- A severe latex allergy can cause difficulty in breathing and swelling.
- It is characterised by white or yellow scaly patches that flake off.
- The affected areas may be oily, greasy and itchy.
- Eczema can cause a red rash on light skin. The rash may appear grey, purple or brown on darker skin.
- In the area with the rash, hair loss may also occur.
- This causes sharply defined, silvery and scaly skin patches. Purplish or dark brown skin patches might also appear on dark-skinned people.
- This condition may be asymptomatic or itchy.
- This is a medical emergency.
- Cellulitis is caused by fungi and bacteria that enter the skin through cuts or lacerations.
- It causes swollen skin that is painful without or with oozing that spreads quickly.
- On lighter skin, the skin may appear red. This can be much less visible on darker pores and skin tones.
- The skin may feel soft and hot to the touch.
- Red streaking, chills and fever from the rash might be symptoms of a serious infection requiring medical attention.
- The symptoms of measles include runny nose, cough, loss of appetite, watery or red eyes, sore throat and fever.
- It causes a red rash, which spreads from the face down the body 3 to 5 days after the first symptoms appear. On dark skin, this rash might be more difficult to see.
- Inside the mouth, tiny red spots with blue-white centres may appear.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
- This condition is often characterised by pale, firm and raised areas that may resemble a scar.
- It can cause dome-like pearly, shiny, red or pink areas that may have a sunk-in centre, like a crater. It might appear darker and less pearly in people with dark skin.
- Blood vessels may be visible in the growth area.
- It might cause an easy oozing or bleeding wound which heals and then reappears or doesn’t seem to heal.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- This condition often occurs in areas exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, like the back of the hands, ears and face.
- It may be characterised by a reddish, scaly patch of the skin which progresses to a raised bump that continues to grow. On darker skin, the bump may be lighter.
- It can also cause a growth that heals and then reappears, doesn’t heal or bleeds easily.
- This is more common in people with light skin and is the most serious form of cancer.
- It can appear anywhere on the body as a mole that has multiple colours, asymmetrical shapes and irregularly shaped edges.
- It might also appear as a mole that has gotten bigger or changed colour over time, which is normally larger than a pencil eraser.
- Its symptoms include swollen or painful joints, fever, headaches and fatigue.
- It can cause a disc-shaped, scaly rash that doesn’t hurt or itch.
- Ring shapes or scaly red patches are most commonly located on the upper torso, neck, forearms and shoulders and worsen with exposure to sunlight.
- This condition appears hours to days after contact with an allergen.
- It appears where your skin touches the irritating substance and causes a rash with visible borders.
- The skin may be raw, scaly or itchy. Darker skin may appear dark brown, grey or purple and lighter skin can appear red.
- It might also cause blisters that become crusty or ooze.
- Focal vitiligo causes loss of skin colour in some particular small areas, which might merge.
- Depigmentation is caused on one side of the body due to segmental pattern vitiligo.
- It can also cause premature greying of the facial hair or scalp.
- Skin patches much lighter than your natural skin tone may develop in people of different skin tones.
- These are caused by many different types of a virus called HPV (human papillomavirus).
- They may be found on the mucous membranes or the skin and can occur in groups or singly.
- Warts may be passed to others and are contagious.
- This can cause clusters of fluid-filled, brown or red, itchy blisters in various stages of healing all over the body.
- The rash is accompanied by loss of appetite, sore throat, body aches and fever.
- Until all blisters have crusted over, chickenpox remains contagious.
- On darker skin, chickenpox can be harder to see.
- Ringworm causes scaly, circular rashes with a raised border.
- Skin in the middle of the ring might appear healthy and clear and the ring’s edges may spread outward.
- The skin often feels itchy.
- The ring is typically pink or red on light skin and grey or brown on darker skin.
What are the Causes of Skin Diseases?
The development of skin disease is the result of certain lifestyle factors and underlying health conditions. Common causes of skin problems are:
- Bacteria trapped in your hair follicles or pores
- Conditions that affect your immune system, kidneys or thyroid
- Contact with environmental triggers, like another person’s skin or allergens
- Parasites or fungi living on your skin
- Medications, like the ones that treat IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)
What are the Treatments for Skin Diseases?
Based on your condition, your doctor may recommend treatments such as:
- Laser skin resurfacing
- Gels, ointments or medicated creams
- Medications are taken orally
- Injections, creams or steroid pills
- Surgical procedures
- The symptoms of skin conditions might also reduce by certain lifestyle changes, such as:
- Limiting or avoiding certain foods, like dairy or sugar, if your healthcare provider suggests it
- Managing stress
- Practising good hygiene
- Avoiding excessive smoking and alcohol use
Human skin plays an important role in protecting your body and its organs. Some skin diseases can be painful and even fatal, so it is advisable to seek medical help from an experienced dermatologist. Timely care and help can ensure appropriate treatment is prescribed to you as per the condition of your skin.
At the CK Birla Hospital, we ensure patients get holistic medical support which includes treatment in a compassionate environment. This patient-centric approach not only helps patients heal better but also ensures they are aware of the preventive measures as well. In case you need to consult a dermatologist, reach out to us, or book a direct appointment with Dr Seema Oberoi Lall at the CK Birla Hospital.
How can I Identify My Rash?
You can identify rashes usually by their appearance, as they can be dry, scaly, itchy or red; can appear as blisters, welts or blotches and develop all over the body or in one specific area of skin.
Can I Experience Rosacea after Treatment?
Rosacea can relapse after treatment and there can be various reasons for it, like spicy foods, alcoholic beverages, sunlight and stress.
What does Eczema Look Like?
The main characteristics of eczema which are visible are yellow or white scaly patches that flake off, affected areas being oily, greasy and itchy and the appearance of a red rash (on light-skinned people).
Which Body Parts do Psoriasis Affect?
The patches in psoriasis are normally located on the lower back, knees, elbows and scalp.
What makes Lupus Easily Recognisable?
One of the most visible symptoms of lupus is a red, brown or warm rash that spreads across the bridge of the nose and cheeks like butterfly wings.
What causes Vitiligo?
Vitiligo is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the cells that give skin its colour, resulting in the loss of pigment in the skin.
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