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Asthma: Understanding Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment


Millions of people worldwide suffer from the chronic respiratory disease known as asthma. Exploring its intricacies, from varied types and potential triggers to distinct symptoms and accurate diagnosis, is crucial for comprehensive management. Understanding the multifaceted aspects of asthma arms individuals with the knowledge needed to recognize, treat, and control this respiratory challenge for improved quality of life.

What Are the Different Types of Asthma?

Asthma is categorised based on causes and the severity of symptoms, broken down into various types:

  • Intermittent asthma: Symptoms are sporadic, allowing for normal periods in between flares.
  • Persistent asthma: Characterised by frequent symptoms, which can be mild, moderate, or severe, affecting daily activities.

The causes of asthma are diverse, including:

  • Allergic asthma: Triggered by allergens such as moulds, pollens, and pet dander.
  • Non-allergic asthma: Caused by factors like exercise, stress, illness, and weather changes.

Asthma can also be distinguished by the age at which it starts:

  • Adult-onset asthma: Begins after the age of 18.
  • Paediatric asthma: Often starts before age 5, potentially affecting infants and toddlers.

In addition, specific types of asthma are identified based on their triggers:

  • Exercise-induced asthma: Triggered by physical activity, also known as exercise-induced bronchospasm.
  • Occupational asthma: Occurs in individuals exposed to irritants at their workplace.
  • Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome (ACOS): A combination of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, leading to significant breathing difficulties.

You Can Also Read: Tips to Strengthen Lungs & Increase the Oxygen Levels at Home

What Are the Symptoms of Asthma?

Asthma, marked by wheezing and variable symptoms, requires medical consultation for diagnosis and management.

Key symptoms include:

  • Coughing: Especially at night or during exercise.
  • Chest tightness: Feeling of constriction in the chest.
  • Shortness of breath: Difficulty catching breath.
  • Fatigue: Often due to the extra effort of breathing.

Despite well-managed asthma, individuals may still experience flare-ups, which can include:

  • Intensified coughing and wheezing: Noticeable increase in usual symptoms.
  • Chest pain or tightness: May become more pronounced.
  • Difficulty sleeping: Due to increased symptom activity.

For severe asthma symptoms like difficulty breathing, blue lips, or confusion, seek immediate medical help and use quick-acting inhalers for safety.

What Are the Causes and Triggers of Asthma?

The exact causes of asthma remain elusive, but several risk factors are recognized:

  • Allergies: A significant risk factor for developing asthma.
  • Environmental Irritants: Exposure to smoke, toxins, and other irritants can lead to asthma, especially in children.
  • Genetics: A family history of asthma or allergies increases the likelihood of developing asthma.
  • Respiratory Infections: Early-life infections can contribute to developing asthma.

Asthma attacks are induced by various irritants or “triggers.” Identifying and avoiding these is key to managing asthma. Common triggers include:

  • Air Pollution: Factory emissions, car exhaust, and wildfire smoke.
  • Dust Mites: Microscopic bugs in household dust.
  • Exercise: Physical activity can induce asthma in some individuals.
  • Mould: Present in damp environments.
  • Pests: Cockroaches and mice droppings.
  • Pets: Allergens from pet dander.
  • Tobacco Smoke: Smoke from cigarettes, especially in enclosed areas.
  • Strong Chemicals/Smells: Can trigger attacks in sensitive individuals.
  • Occupational Exposures: Various workplace substances like dust or chemicals.

Asthma triggers vary per individual and can cause immediate or delayed attacks. Recognizing and avoiding these reduces attacks and enhances life quality for those affected.

You Can Also Read:  How to protect yourself from Air pollution?

How is Asthma Diagnosed?

Asthma diagnosis involves a combination of methods, as there’s no single definitive test:

  • Health history: A key factor is family history. If relatives have asthma, the risk increases.
  • Physical exam: Doctors use a stethoscope to listen to breathing and may conduct skin tests to check for allergic reactions like hives or eczema, which heighten asthma risk.
  • Breathing tests: Tests such as spirometry measure airflow, assessing the speed of air when blown into a device.

For children under 5:

  • Formal breathing tests are often skipped due to the difficulty of obtaining accurate readings.
  • Doctors may prescribe asthma medications and monitor improvement, indicating a likely asthma diagnosis.

For adults:

  • If test results suggest asthma, doctors may prescribe bronchodilators or other asthma medications.
  • A positive response to these medications confirms the diagnosis, leading to continued treatment for asthma.

What is the Treatment for Asthma?

The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program classifies asthma based on severity pre-treatment, impacting daily life and symptom frequency. The classifications include:

  • Intermittent: Mild symptoms not more than two days a week or two nights a month.
  • Mild persistent: Signs and symptoms more than twice a week but not every day.
  • Moderate persistent: Daily symptoms and more than one night a week.
  • Severe persistent: Frequent symptoms throughout the day and most nights, significantly limiting daily activities.

Treatment approaches fall into several categories, each depending on the asthma type, patient age, and triggers. The primary goal is to manage and prevent symptoms and flare-ups. The four main treatment categories are:

Quick Relief Medications:

Bronchodilators provide rapid relief for tightened muscles around the airways, primarily through inhalers or nebulizers. They are essential during sudden asthma symptoms or attacks and can be used preventatively.

Long-term Control Medications:

  • Anti-inflammatories help reduce swelling and mucus in the airways.
  • Anticholinergics prevent muscle tightening around the airways.
  • Long-acting bronchodilators should be used with anti-inflammatory medications for prolonged effect.

Combination of quick relief and long-term control medications:

Recommended in the latest guidelines for a comprehensive management approach.


Used for severe asthma cases resistant to other treatments, these target specific antibodies to disrupt the inflammation pathway.

Bronchial Thermoplasty, a minimally invasive procedure for severe asthma, uses heat to shrink airway muscles, offering up to five years of relief, though availability may vary.

Each treatment or combination is tailored to the individual’s needs, focusing on reducing the impact of asthma on daily life and managing the condition effectively over time.

You Can Also Read: How does COPD happen?

What Are the Long-term Strategies for Controlling Asthma? 

Long-term strategies for asthma management involve a combination of lifestyle adjustments, regular monitoring, and medical treatment:

Asthma action plan: Create a personalised plan with your healthcare provider detailing daily treatments, symptom monitoring, and emergency responses.

Medications: Use long-term control medications like inhaled corticosteroids to prevent symptoms and quick-relief medications for immediate symptom management.

Trigger avoidance: Identify and avoid triggers such as allergens, irritants, and extreme weather conditions. Implement environmental controls like using air filters and maintaining cleanliness.

Regular monitoring: Use tools like peak flow metres to monitor lung function and have regular medical check-ups to adjust treatment plans.

Vaccinations: Stay up-to-date with vaccinations, particularly against respiratory infections like influenza and pneumonia.

Lifestyle adjustments: Maintain a healthy weight, exercise regularly with proper precautions, and quit smoking.

Education: Understand your condition, proper medication usage, and early signs of an asthma attack.

By combining these elements, individuals with asthma can effectively manage their condition, reduce the frequency and severity of episodes, and maintain an active and healthy lifestyle. Regular consultation with healthcare providers is crucial to adapting the plan over time.


Breathing becomes difficult when one has asthma because of lung inflammation. It can take numerous forms and manifest in varying degrees of severity in adults and children. However, many people live fulfilling lives with asthma and some professional athletes with asthma have set records in their sports. It is always advisable to seek medical help from an experienced pulmonologist. Timely care and help can ensure an appropriate diagnosis and treatment of your condition. 

At the CK Birla Hospital, we ensure patients get holistic medical support which includes treatment in a compassionate environment. This patient-centric approach not only helps patients heal better but also ensures they are aware of the preventive measures as well. In case you need to consult a pulmonologist, reach out to us, or book a direct appointment at the CK Birla Hospital.


Can Asthma Develop at Any Age, or Is It More Common in Childhood?

Asthma can develop at any age, though it is more commonly diagnosed in childhood due to factors like genetics, early allergen exposure, and respiratory infections.

Are There Specific Triggers That Worsen Asthma Symptoms? 

Common asthma triggers include pollen, dust mites, tobacco smoke, cold air, exercise, stress, and respiratory infections. Each individual may have unique triggers based on their sensitivities.

How Often Should Asthma Medications Be Reviewed and Adjusted?

Asthma medications should be reviewed and potentially adjusted at least annually or sooner if symptoms change, during regular check-ups, or as recommended by a healthcare professional for optimal management. 

Is It Possible to Outgrow Asthma, or Is It a Lifelong Condition?

Some children may outgrow asthma symptoms as they age, but it’s often a lifelong condition. Severity can fluctuate over time and with appropriate management, many live symptom-free.

What Role Does Stress Play in Asthma, and How Can It Be Managed?

Stress can exacerbate asthma by triggering inflammation and airway constriction. Management includes stress-reduction techniques like deep breathing, meditation, regular exercise, and maintaining a strong support network, alongside medical treatment.

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