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Demystifying Gynaecomastia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

demystifying gynaecomastia causes symptoms ans treatment

Gynecomastia, a condition characterized by the enlargement of breast tissue in males, can impact self-esteem and quality of life. 

This blog explores the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for gynecomastia, providing valuable insights into this often misunderstood condition. Whether you’re seeking information for yourself or a loved one, join us as we delve into the intricacies of gynecomastia.

What is Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia is a prevalent condition characterized by the enlargement of breast tissue in males. It can affect males of various ages, typically manifesting during infancy, puberty, and later in adulthood. Gynecomastia has multiple causes, with the most common being an imbalance between testosterone and oestrogen hormones.

What are the Types of Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia, the development of enlarged breast tissue in males, encompasses several types with distinct causes, such as:

  • Physiological Gynecomastia: Common during infancy, adolescence, and older age due to natural hormonal shifts.
  • Pathological Gynecomastia: Resulting from medical conditions or medications. It has the following subtypes:
  • Endocrine Disorders: Hormonal imbalances like hypogonadism or hyperthyroidism.
  • Liver Disease: Impairs hormone metabolism.
  • Kidney Failure: Disrupts hormone balance.
  • Tumors: Hormone-producing tumors affect breast tissue.
  • Medications: Some drugs like steroids or antidepressants induce breast tissue growth.
  • Idiopathic Gynecomastia: Unknown cause, often in healthy individuals.
  • Pseudogynecomastia: Enlarged breasts due to fat deposition, not glandular growth.

Gynecomastia can be unilateral or bilateral, and identifying its type aids in diagnosis and treatment. Consulting a healthcare provider is recommended for evaluation and management.

What are the Symptoms of Gynecomastia?

The symptoms of gynecomastia can manifest as:

  • breast tenderness
  • breast discharge
  • swollen breasts

Additional symptoms may arise depending on the underlying cause. If you experience these symptoms, it’s important to consult your doctor for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

What are the Causes of Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia, the enlargement of male breasts, often results from hormonal imbalances such as excess oestrogen or reduced testosterone. Here’s a breakdown of the causes:

  • Hormonal Imbalance: Elevated oestrogen levels relative to androgens can trigger breast growth.
  • Obesity: Excess fatty tissue in obese individuals can lead to pseudogynecomastia.

Medical Conditions

Medications (Which affect hormone levels or metabolism)

  • Anxiety and depression drugs
  • Antibiotics and antifungals
  • Drugs for prostate enlargement, heart conditions, and ulcers
  • HCG (for male infertility)
  • Substances of abuse (methadone)

Other Substances Linked to Breast Swelling

  • Amphetamines, marijuana, and opioids
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Lavender and tea tree oils (in herbal supplements)

What are the Complications of Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia, the enlargement of breast tissue in males, presents several complications, like:

  • Psychological Impact: It can cause emotional distress and lower self-esteem, particularly in young individuals.
  • Pain and Tenderness: Enlarged breast tissue may be sensitive and painful.
  • Social and Behavioural Effects: Activities like swimming or changing in public may be avoided.
  • Clothing Fit: Finding comfortable clothing can be challenging.
  • Physical Discomfort: Skin irritation and chafing can occur.

Gynecomastia can signal hormonal imbalances, liver disease, and a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in men. It impacts intimacy and requires medical evaluation for diagnosis and treatment.

How is Gynecomastia Diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will evaluate symptoms, conduct a physical examination, and go over your medical and family background. They may suggest a blood test to assess hormone levels.

Since both gynecomastia and breast cancer can result in breast lumps, your provider might request:

  • A breast ultrasound to obtain detailed images of any breast growth.
  • A mammogram to investigate abnormal growths or alterations in breast tissue.

What is the Treatment for Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia can be addressed through various treatments tailored to the individual’s needs, which are:

  • Surgery: A surgical option involves removing excess breast fat and glandular tissue, which may be recommended if swollen tissue is the primary issue. This procedure is known as a mastectomy.
  • Medications: Doctors may prescribe hormone-affecting medications like tamoxifen or raloxifene to rebalance hormone levels and reduce breast tissue.
  • Counselling: If gynecomastia causes self-consciousness or depression, counselling with a healthcare provider or counsellor can be beneficial. Support groups with others experiencing the condition can also offer emotional support and perspective.

Also read: 10 Best Gynaecologists to Visit in Delhi-Gurgaon.

How can You Prevent Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia can often be prevented or minimized by addressing underlying causes and making certain lifestyle choices. Here are some effective strategies:

  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Obesity can lead to hormonal imbalances that increase the risk of gynecomastia. Adopting a balanced diet and regular exercise routine helps regulate hormones.
  • Avoid Illegal Drugs: Anabolic steroids, marijuana, and heroin can heighten the risk of gynecomastia. Avoiding these substances is crucial to prevent breast tissue enlargement.
  • Limit Alcohol Consumption: Excessive alcohol disrupts hormone levels, contributing to gynecomastia. Reducing alcohol intake minimizes this risk.
  • Be Cautious with Medications: Some antibiotics, anti-androgens, and drugs used in prostate cancer treatment can cause gynecomastia. Talk to your doctor about any possible side effects at all times.
  • Address Underlying Health Conditions: Treating conditions like hypogonadism or liver disease can help prevent gynecomastia.
  • Regular Exercise and Adequate Sleep: Both contribute to healthy hormone levels.
  • Monitor Hormones: Regular health check-ups are essential to detect and manage any hormonal imbalances early.


Gynecomastia is a common condition with various causes and treatment options. Seeking medical advice is crucial for accurate diagnosis and personalized management, ensuring optimal outcomes and improved quality of life. It is always advisable to seek medical help from a plastic surgeon. Timely care and help can ensure an appropriate diagnosis and treatment of your condition. 

 At the CK Birla Hospital, we ensure patients get holistic medical support which includes treatment in a compassionate environment. This patient-centric approach not only helps patients heal better but also ensures they are aware of the preventive measures as well. In case you need to consult a plastic surgeon, reach out to us, or book a direct appointment with plastic surgeons at the CK Birla Hospital. 

Also read:10 Best Gynaecologists to Visit in Delhi-Gurgaon

FAQs about Demystifying Gynecomastia

Can Gynecomastia go Away on its Own?

Gynecomastia can sometimes resolve on its own, especially during puberty. However, if it persists or is due to other causes, medical evaluation and treatment may be needed.

Is Gynecomastia Common During Puberty?

Hormonal changes during puberty often result in gynecomastia. It often resolves on its own as hormone levels stabilize, but medical evaluation may be needed if it persists.

Can Medications Cause Gynecomastia?

Certain medications such as hormones, anti-androgens, and some antidepressants can cause gynecomastia by altering hormone levels. Consulting a doctor about medication side effects is advisable.

How Long does Recovery Take After Gynecomastia Surgery?

Recovery time after gynecomastia surgery typically ranges from a few days to a few weeks. Full recovery and final results may take several months, depending on individual healing.

Are there Any Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Gynecomastia?

Non-surgical treatment options for gynecomastia include hormone therapy, medications like tamoxifen or raloxifene, and lifestyle changes (exercise, weight loss) depending on the underlying cause. Consulting a healthcare provider is recommended.

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