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Testosterone in Male & Females

testosterone level in male

In your body, gonads lead testosterone production: ovaries for those AFAB (persons assigned female at birth) and testicles for those AMAB (persons assigned male at birth). Adrenal glands craft Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), transforming into testosterone and oestrogen, balancing hormones. Testosterone, a key androgen, shapes masculine traits, notably higher in AMAB. The interplay of gonads and adrenal glands sculpts an individual’s hormonal landscape, influencing traits.

What Does Testosterone Do?

Testosterone, the powerhouse hormone, takes on varied roles depending on life stages, influencing aspects like adulthood, puberty in males, and even foetal development.

Testosterone in Adulthood for People Assigned Female at Birth

  • In adults assigned female at birth (AFAB), testosterone boosts libido, contributing to a sense of well-being.
  • Notably, most ovarian testosterone transforms into estradiol, a primary female sex hormone.

Testosterone in Adulthood for People Assigned Male at Birth

Crucial for sperm production, testosterone in adults assigned male at birth (AMAB) has multifaceted roles:

  • Increases libido, fostering a desire for sexual activity.
  • Maintains robust muscles and bones.
  • Starts the process of forming new red blood cells.

Testosterone During Puberty

Puberty in individuals designated male at birth witnesses testosterone-induced changes, encompassing:

  • Libido boosts, influencing the sex drive.
  • Enlargement of the prostate, testicles, and penis.
  • Growth of body and pubic hair.
  • An increase in overall height.

Testosterone in Foetal Development

  • The Y chromosome’s sex-related gene kickstarts testicle development in male newborns at approximately week seven of gestation.
  • Testicles, in turn, generate testosterone, shaping both internal and external male reproductive organs during foetal development.

Understanding the intricate dance of testosterone across various life stages unveils its profound impact on human development and well-being.

You Can Also Read: Impact of Low Testosterone Levels: Causes, Symptoms, and Solutions

What Are Normal Testosterone Levels by Age?

Explore the two charts below, offering insights into the typical testosterone levels based on age and gender. The unit of measurement for this crucial hormone is nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL).

Testosterone ranges vary by test and lab. Your doctor interprets based on your test’s specific lab, giving you a personalised and accurate reading. 

For individuals designated male at birth, normal testosterone levels are:

Age Range Normal Testosterone Range
Under 1 year old Less than 12 ng/dL
1 to 5 years old Less than 12 ng/dL
6 to 10 years old Less than 25 ng/dL
11 to 15 years old Less than 830 ng/dL
16 to 17 years old 102 to 1010 ng/dL
18 to 99 years old 193 to 824 ng/dL


For individuals designated female at birth, normal testosterone levels are:

Age Range Normal Testosterone Range
Under 1 year old Less than 21 ng/dL
1 to 5 years old Less than 12 ng/dL
6 to 10 years old Less than 25 ng/dL
11 to 17 years old Less than 79 ng/dL
18 to 99 years old Less than 40 ng/dL


How Does Testosterone Affect the Physical and Mental Well-being of Men? 

Testosterone, a key hormone in men, wields a profound influence on both physical and mental well-being.

Physical Well-being:

  • Muscle Mass and Strength: Elevated testosterone levels contribute to increased muscle mass and strength, essential for overall physical vitality.
  • Bone Density: Testosterone supports bone health by aiding in the production of bone tissue, preventing osteoporosis.
  • Fat Distribution: It regulates fat distribution, promoting a healthier body composition.
  • Red Blood Cell Production: Testosterone stimulates the production of red blood cells, ensuring optimal oxygen transport in the body.

Mental Well-being:

  • Mood Regulation: Adequate testosterone levels play a role in mood regulation, reducing the risk of depressive symptoms.
  • Cognitive Function: Testosterone supports cognitive functions such as memory and concentration.
  • Energy Levels: Optimal testosterone levels contribute to sustained energy levels and overall vitality.

Understanding and maintaining balanced testosterone levels is integral to fostering holistic well-being in men.

What Are the Lesser-known Aspects of Testosterone in Women?

Let us unveil the nuanced impact of testosterone in women, from enhancing libido to influencing cognitive and emotional aspects.

Physiological Role:

  • Libido Enhancement: Testosterone contributes to female libido, influencing sexual desire.
  • Muscle Tone: It aids in maintaining muscle tone and overall strength, supporting physical well-being.
  • Bone Health: Testosterone plays a role in preserving bone density, and preventing osteoporosis.

Cognitive and Emotional Impact:

  • Mood Regulation: Adequate testosterone levels contribute to mood stability and may alleviate symptoms of mood disorders.
  • Cognitive Function: It influences cognitive abilities, including memory and mental clarity.
  • Confidence and Assertiveness: Optimal testosterone levels can contribute to increased confidence and assertiveness in women.

While often overshadowed by its prominence in men, testosterone remains vital for various aspects of women’s health, encompassing both physical and emotional well-being.

What is the Significance of Hormones and Their Balance in Female Physiology?

In the intricate symphony of female physiology, hormonal balance is a key conductor, orchestrating various functions that span physical and emotional realms.

Menstrual Cycle Harmony:

  • Hormones like oestrogen and progesterone regulate the menstrual cycle, ensuring its proper functioning.
  • Imbalances can lead to irregular periods, affecting reproductive health.

Reproductive Health:

  • Optimal hormonal balance supports fertility, influencing ovulation and successful conception.
  • Disorders like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can disrupt this delicate equilibrium.

Bone Health and Oestrogen:

  • Oestrogen plays a crucial role in maintaining bone density and reducing the risk of osteoporosis.
  • Hormonal shifts during menopause can impact bone health.

Emotional Well-being:

  • Hormones influence neurotransmitters, affecting mood and emotional well-being.
  • Fluctuations may contribute to conditions like mood swings and anxiety.

Metabolic Regulation:

  • Hormones participate in metabolism, influencing weight and energy levels.
  • Insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones contribute to metabolic homeostasis.

Understanding and preserving this delicate hormonal balance is essential for women’s overall health, emphasising the need for regular check-ups and a holistic approach to well-being.


Testosterone is essential for overall health and reproductive health, whether for people who are born male or female. If they are always high or low, you might not feel comfortable. It is always advisable to seek medical help from an experienced endocrinologist. Timely care and help can ensure an appropriate diagnosis and treatment of your condition

At the CK Birla Hospital, we ensure patients get holistic medical support which includes treatment in a compassionate environment. This patient-centric approach not only helps patients heal better but also ensures they are aware of the preventive measures as well. In case you need to consult an endocrinologist, reach out to us, or book a direct appointment at the CK Birla Hospital.


What is the Primary Function of Testosterone in Males and Females?

In males, testosterone is crucial for sperm production, libido, and maintaining muscle and bone strength. In females, it contributes to libido, overall well-being, and the transformation of precursor hormones.

How Do Testosterone Levels Change With Age?

Testosterone levels tend to decline with age in both men and women. In males, the decline is gradual but may lead to symptoms like reduced libido and muscle mass.

Can Imbalances in Testosterone Lead to Health Issues?

Yes, imbalances in testosterone can lead to health issues. Low levels may cause fatigue, reduced libido, and mood changes, while high levels may contribute to infertility and cardiovascular problems.

Are There Natural Ways to Boost Testosterone?

Natural ways to boost testosterone include regular exercise, sufficient sleep, a balanced diet with adequate nutrients, maintaining a healthy weight, managing stress, and avoiding excessive alcohol consumption.

What Role Does Testosterone Play in Reproductive Health?

Testosterone plays a crucial role in reproductive health by promoting sperm production, maintaining libido, and contributing to the development of male reproductive organs, influencing fertility and overall reproductive function.

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