A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure done to remove the uterus. A hysterectomy may involve the removal of nearby organs and tissues, including the ovaries and fallopian tubes, depending on the purpose of the operation. This procedure is performed in case of cancer, fibroids, irregular bleeding, and uterine prolapse.
There are different types of hysterectomy and which type of hysterectomy is required depends on the condition. The right cause will determine if fallopian tubes or ovaries need to be removed.
Total hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus, cervix, and ovaries.
Supracervical hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus’ upper portion while leaving the cervix in place.
Total hysterectomy with bilateral sapling oophorectomy: Removing the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes (salpingectomy), and ovaries.
Radical hysterectomy with bilateral sapling-oophorectomy: Removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, the upper region of the vagina, some surrounding tissue, and lymph nodes.
Healthcare providers perform hysterectomies to treat:
- Severe pain during menstruation, not controlled by any treatment
- Increased abnormal or heavy bleeding
- Cervical or uterine cancer or showing symptoms of cancer
- Issues with the lining of the uterus like hyperplasia
- Case of uterine polyps or adenomyosis
- Severe pain in the pelvic area, related to the uterus
The medical expert would be the best person to advise what is the right procedure as per the condition. The doctors prepare you for the surgery and start this by monitoring your heart rate. An IV line is placed in a vein to help deliver medications and fluids.
There are several surgical procedures the healthcare expert may use to perform a hysterectomy.
In this, the uterus is removed through an incision that is done at the top of your vagina and dissolvable stitches are placed in the vagina. This procedure is most commonly used in cases of uterine prolapse. Post-treatment the patient is often relieved the same day.
As the name explains, for this surgery, a laparoscope is inserted in the lower abdomen area through a small incision. For this, the uterus is removed in smaller pieces.
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy
This surgery is performed using a robotic machine. A laparoscope is inserted to view the pelvic area. The robotic arms and instruments are controlled by the surgeon while performing the surgery.
This is the most common surgery done when the patient has been diagnosed with cancer. In this, a 6-8 inches incision is made through the abdomen to remove the uterus.
The time of the procedure will vary as per each case. It depends on the size of the uterus, the number of surgeries to be carried out, and assessing how much damage has been done to the area. The procedure usually lasts 1-3 hours.