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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

Get personalised care by a team of internationally accredited gynaecologists for Premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

PMDD or Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is considered a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. While PMS affects many women, PMDD is much less common. Estimates suggest that 3–8% of women of reproductive age experience PMDD.

Learn more about Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, its common causes, symptoms, and treatment options in this blog.

What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder?

What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder?

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a serious and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

The disorder affects approximately 5% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by marked changes in behaviour and mood that are significantly different from a woman’s normal functioning.

These changes happen during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and they typically start 1-2 weeks before menstruation and end 1-2 days after the onset of menstruation.

PMDD is a serious condition that can have a significant impact on a woman’s quality of life. Women with PMDD may have difficulty functioning at work or school and may have trouble maintaining relationships. PMDD can also lead to depression and anxiety.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms

The most common premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms include:

PMDD can be a very debilitating disorder, but there are treatments available. Your doctor can make a PMDD diagnosis after assessing your symptoms and help you with a suitable treatment plan. Thus, if you think you may have PMDD, talk to your doctor.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder causes

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder causes

The exact cause of PMDD is unknown, but it is thought to be related to a woman’s hormonal fluctuations during her menstrual cycle. A combination of psychological factors may also cause PMDD.

Some common Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder causes include:

Hormonal fluctuations

Hormonal fluctuations are thought to be related to changes in hormone levels during a woman’s menstrual cycle. These changes can trigger symptoms such as mood swings, irritability, and depression.

Neurotransmitter imbalances

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that help transmit messages between brain cells. Imbalances in certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, are thought to be involved in the development of PMDD.

Nutrient deficiencies

Nutrient deficiencies are another possible cause of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder treatment.

Some studies have shown that women with PMDD are more likely to be deficient in certain nutrients, including magnesium, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B6. These deficiencies can also contribute to the symptoms of PMDD.

Psychological factors such as stress

Stress is another possible cause of PMDD. Women who are under a lot of stress may be more susceptible to the condition.

Additionally, the stress of dealing with PMDD itself can worsen symptoms.

Treatment options for premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Treatment options for premenstrual dysphoric disorder

There are different treatment options for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). While there is no cure for PMDD, there are ways to manage the symptoms and minimize the impact on your life.

Common Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder treatment options include:

Antidepressant medication

One of the most effective treatments for PMDD is medication. Antidepressants, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are typically used to treat the condition.

SSRIs work by balancing the serotonin levels in the brain, which can help alleviate the symptoms of PMDD.

Birth control pills

Some women find that taking a birth control pill with a higher estrogen dose helps reduce their symptoms. Birth control pills can help in regulating hormone levels, which can, in turn, help to reduce the symptoms of PMDD.

Others find relief by taking supplements such as vitamin B6 or calcium.

Lifestyle changes

Lifestyle changes can also help manage the symptoms of PMDD. Exercise and stress-reduction techniques, such as yoga or meditation, can help alleviate PMDD symptoms.


Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) refers to a type of therapy that can help treat PMDD. CBT can help you change the way you think about and cope with your premenstrual symptoms.



PMDD is a condition that can cause severe mood swings, irritability, and even depression during the second half of the menstrual cycle. There are different potential causes of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, including hormonal imbalance, nutrient deficiencies, and stress.

If you are struggling with PMDD, you must talk to your doctor about the best treatment options. With the right treatment, you can minimize the impact of PMDD on your life and live a healthy and happy life.

Gynaecologists at the CK Birla Hospital(R) are experienced in treating all female reproductive issues, including PMDD. Furthermore, our experts can help you manage the symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome effectively.

Book an appointment with experienced Gynaecologists. now.

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