Testicular cancer develops in the testicles of men. Although it is a rare kind of cancer, it is one of the most common cancers among men within the age bracket of (15 to 35) years.
One may have testicular cancer due to the abnormal growth of one or more cells in the testicles. All men having this disease may not experience the symptom. However, around 90% of this type of cancer develops from germ cells produced in the sperm. These cells form the mass or tumour in the testicle.
There are two types of Testicular cancer: one is known as Seminoma, and the other is Non-seminoma.
Seminoma grows slowly and mainly affects men between the age group of 40 to 50 years. Non-seminoma, on the other hand, grows faster and is common among men in their 20s and early 30s.
Despite being a life-threatening disease, its high cure rate brings a sigh of relief among the patients.
Testicles are located inside the scrotum, which is the skin of the bag under the penis of a man. The scrotum holds and protects testicles.
The primary purpose of testicles is to produce sperm, which is essential for the reproduction system, and testosterone hormone.
Doctors divide cancer into different stages to describe how much cancer has spread in the body. The division of cancer into different stages helps our doctor to begin the treatment as per requirement.
Testicular cancer can be divided into stages 0, I, II, and III.
This stage is also known as Germ Cell Neoplasia in Situ, which refers to the presence of abnormal cells in the testicles. At this stage, cells are inside the testicles but have not spread across the testicles.
Cancer has not developed yet.
Stage I is the earlier stage of cancer. The cells are inside the testicles but have not spread to lymph nodes or other organs. The recovery rate at this stage is high.
This stage can further be divided into Stages 1A, 1B, and 1S based on the risk of recurrence.
- Stage 1A means cells are within the limit of the testicle; at this stage, there will be no Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) which increases the risk of spreading cancer
- LVI is present at the 1B stage
- 1S stage refers to the increased level of markers in the blood
Chemotherapy is necessary to cure the 1S stage.
Cells spread to the lymph or pelvis at this stage. This stage again gets further division based on cancer affecting the lymph.
This is the final stage of testicular cancer. At this stage, cancer spreads to the body’s glyphs, pelvis, and other organs.
It is a normal process when the healthy cell usually grows as they help our body to function correctly.
Testicular cancer may develop when cells in the testicles grow abnormally and form lumps or masses. These cells are commonly known as germ cells produced in the sperm.
However, there is no precise study regarding such behavior of these cells.
One of the common testicular cancer symptoms is the appearance of a lump or mass in either of the testicles. There will be no pain, and a tumour of 2 cm or smaller than that can be termed a benign tumour which is not a matter of worry.
Some significant testicular cancer symptoms have been mentioned below:
- Painless swelling or lump like formation in either of the testicles
- One of the testicles will feel firmer than the other
- Presence of dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin
- Fluid will appear suddenly in the scrotum
- Occurrence of Gynecomastia, which is a condition that occurs when some testicular tumours produce a hormone that causes breast tenderness; however, it is a rare condition and is noticed among very few people
- Pain and discomfort in the scrotum or testicles
The diagnosis begins after investigating a lump in the testicle and continues during the physical exam. Some other diagnostic procedures include:
Examination of Symptoms
Our doctor will examine the testicular cancer symptoms, including the lums or lymph developed in the testicles. If the doctor notices any abnormal growth of cells, they will recommend other procedures like Ultrasound and biopsy.
Ultrasound helps to take the mage of the tissues in the body by using high-energy sound waves.
If the doctor notices any abnormality in the ultrasound report, the lump or mass will be removed by conducting an operation. Later the doctor will send the removal part for the biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Tumour Marker Test
This test measures the presence of tumour markers in the blood. A tumour marker is a substance that develops testicular cancer.
This test can help determine if cancer has spread, if the treatment works, or if cancer has returned post-treatment.
C.T. scan is an X-ray that helps to create a picture inside the body. By using C.T. Scan, our doctor will examine the abdomen and pelvis to examine whether cancer spreads to the abdominal organ or not.
X-Rays and MRIs
With the help of an X-Ray, our doctor will examine if cancer has spread to the lungs. If the doctor is sceptical about spreading cancer to the brain and spinal cord, they will recommend MRI.
Our doctors begin testicular cancer treatment based on various factors, including the stage, type of tumour, and health. There are options like surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy available, based on preferences.
Our doctor will conduct surgery to remove the testicles where the cancer cells are present.
One may have to undergo surgery irrespective of seminoma and non-seminoma testicular cancer. The surgeon performs Radical inguinal orchiectomy to treat both seminoma and non-seminoma testicular cancers. They will create an incision into the groin and remove the tumour in the testicle.
Another type of surgery is Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPNLD). This surgery is associated with non-seminoma testicular cancer. The surgeon conducts this surgery by creating an incision into the abdomen to remove the lymph nodes.
Radiation therapy helps to kill the cancer cells. It prevents the recurrence of tumours after surgery. Radiation applies only to the seminomas of testicular cancer.
Chemotherapy is the process of using drugs that kill cancer cells. These drugs are Cisplatin, bleomycin, and etoposide. Chemotherapy has a higher survival rate in the case of Seminoma and non-seminoma testicular cancer.
Although there is no prevention of testicular cancer, one can examine themselves to identify any changes. If there is hardness, numbness, lumps, or changes in the size of the testicle, one should immediately contact a healthcare provider.
Cancer is a life-threatening disease. But the survey report discloses that the recovery rate of testicular cancer is more than 95% in all cases. The recovery rate reaches upto 98% if the treatment begins early. Even the average recovery rate of those at high risk is 50%.
With the development of technology and medical science advancement, cancer patients’ survival rate has increased tremendously. The increasing survival rate among testicular cancer patients has ignited a lamp of hope.
To avail any treatment for testicular cancer, visit the CK Birla Hospital or book an appointment with Dr Prof. Amit Javed. We provide compassionate care and personalized treatment, using cutting-edge technology and advanced treatment procedures which help with a speedy recovery.